• narratives give meaning to events and circumstances
  • narratives are the fabric of identity, which they fashion through content and structure
  • stories refer to fundamental narratives
  • stories resonate with audiences only if the audience is familiar with the fundamental narrative underlying it
  • the authors project their manipulation in claiming that all narratives are “strategic”
  • the authors conflate their abuse of narratives with natural narratives


  1. the authors are trying to explain that narratives are a shape and stories are instances/witnesses of that type